Why is Neptune Cooling Down?

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Neptune Cooling Down
Uncover the enigma of Neptune's cooling during its cosmic summer. Through astounding research, we delve into the temperature changes on the farthest planet in our solar system. What astronomical phenomena could be behind this unexpected occurrence? Join us on this captivating journey to unravel the secrets of Neptune and its mysterious cooling phenomenon.

Over the past two decades, researchers have made an unexpected discovery regarding the cooling of Neptune, the farthest planet in our solar system, amidst its cosmic summer.

Neptune cooling


Neptune orbits several times farther from the Sun than Earth, and its year lasts 165 Earth years. The ice giant’s seasons are also much longer than those on Earth, with each one spanning over 40 Earth years.

As the planet entered its southern summer in recent years, stargazers noticed a surprising drop in its normal temperatures worldwide—around 14 degrees Fahrenheit (8 degrees Celsius).

«This change was astounding,» stated Michael Roman, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Leicester and the lead author of the new study. «Since we have been observing Neptune during its initial southern summer, we would expect temperatures to gradually increase, not decrease.»

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The research team analyzed infrared data obtained from 2003 to 2018 by some of the world’s most advanced telescopes, including the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, the Keck and Subaru telescopes in Hawaii, and NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.

However, the observed cooling was not uniform, according to the scientists’ explanation.

Estimates of Neptune’s stratosphere, the planet’s second least dense layer of atmosphere, revealed a warming pattern over the planet’s southern pole. This finding, based on a two-year timeframe between 2018 and 2020, showed a rapid warming of about 20 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius). The researchers noted that such polar warming had never been observed before on Neptune.

Nevertheless, observations of distant Neptune have only been possible for a few decades, and scientists are still getting acquainted with the planet’s seasonal variations.

«Our data does not cover exactly half of a Neptune season,» said Glenn Orton, a Senior Research Scientist at JPL and co-author of the study. «So, no one expected to see huge and rapid changes.»

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Researchers are still uncertain about the causes of these surprising temperature shifts, but they speculate that it could be related to the 11-year cycle of solar activity, the periodic variation in the number of sunspots on the star.

«The temperature variations could be linked to occasional changes in Neptune’s atmospheric dynamics, which can alter how the air cools,» Roman explained. «However, the random variability in atmospheric conditions or even a response to the 11-year solar activity cycle could also make a difference.»

Previous studies suggested a possible connection between the number of sunspots and the brightness of Neptune. The new study also found some evidence of a potential association between the solar activity cycle, the brightness of clouds in Neptune’s atmosphere, and the temperature of its stratosphere.

Researchers are hopeful that future observations will unveil more secrets of this distant planet. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the most advanced space observatory ever built, is expected to make significant strides in understanding not only Neptune but also its neighboring ice giant, Uranus.

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«The JWST’s remarkable mid-infrared instrument, MIRI, will provide unprecedented insights into the science and temperatures in Neptune’s atmosphere, helping us better understand the nature of these new changes,» said Leigh Fletcher, a Professor of Planetary Sciences at the University of Leicester and a co-author of the study.

As our knowledge of the outer planets continues to expand, scientists anticipate that these new discoveries will shed light on the intricate dynamics of these remote worlds and deepen our understanding of the broader solar system.


Soy Prieto, fundador y editor de 'The Canary', un espacio dedicado a desvelar los misterios que rodean nuestra existencia y explorar lo desconocido. Me apasionan las teorías de conspiración, los fenómenos inexplicables y los aspectos más enigmáticos de la ciencia y la astronomía. A través de 'The Canary', busco ofrecer una plataforma para ideas audaces y descubrimientos sorprendentes. Este sitio es para aquellos que, como yo, comparten una curiosidad por lo desconocido y lo no convencional, invitando a mis lectores a abrirse a las posibilidades de lo que podría ser.

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